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For example, it became the fashion among some later handaxe people, and also among some o f the flake-tool people, to prepare blocks o f stone in such a way that a flake o f accurately determined form could be struck. The preparatory flaking aimed at so shaping the block that the flake eventually detached was immediately serviceable as an implement, without further trimming (figure 55). This was the specialized tortoise-core technique used by many different groups o f hunters in Africa, Asia, and Europe, includ­ ing the Neanderthalers.

Lower Palaeolithic. g. g. of Fontechevade in the Charente). {d) Regular tool-making, with marked standardization, but little specializa­ tion. Lower Palaeolithic. g. of Kanam in Kenya, and Swanscombe, Kent). {e) Manufacture o f specialized tools and weapons: (1) Elementary. Middle Palaeolithic. Homo neanderthalensis and some early Homo sapiens. (2) Composite. Upper or Late Palaeolithic and Mesolithic. g. Cro-Magnons). {f) Use of mechanical principles (machine tools). Modern Homo sapiens. Characteristic o f Neolithic and Metal Ages, but foreshadowed in some Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic practices.

There is reason to suppose that these are particularly connected with the higher mental faculties. The human brain is also distinguished by an increase in the importance of the area containing motor cells. These are concentrated in a band extending from the top or crown to half-way down the side o f each cerebral hemisphere, thus including the hind part of the frontal lobe, adjacent to the front margin of the parietal lobe which receives sensations of touch. In many lower vertebrates, co-ordinated movements, such as the motions of flight in birds, continue to take place even after the removal of the brain, for they depend mainly on patterns of nervous activity— reflexes— in the spinal cord.

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