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Additional resources for A History of the Crusades, Volume V: The Impact of the Crusader States on the Near East
Shared circles of consensus. For example, a media campaign to raise funds for relief work in Bosnia or Palestine, or to provide meat for the poor on Muslim feast days, entails dimensions diﬀerent from those of a movement based primarily in a single locality. Among the multiple modern public spheres, the nation-state claims primacy, prescribing models of homogeneous identity formation and ritual constitution for the whole community. One key ritual, even in authoritarian states, is the general election.
175–196. Brussels, Berlin, and Oxford: Presses Interuniversitaires Europeénnes—Peter Lang. ” In The Public Sphere in Muslim Societies, edted by Miriam Hoexter, Shmuel N. Eisenstadt, and Nehemia Levtzion. Pp. 139–61. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Elias, Norbert 1997 The Germans: Power Struggles and the Development of Habitus in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Boston: Polity. 2000  The Civilizing Process: Sociogenic and Psychogenic Investigations. Rev. ed. Oxford: Blackwell.
Eisenstadt’s (2000) notion of “multiple modernities” is one way of accounting for these diﬀerent trajectories and relating them to the idea of the public sphere. One reason for the importance of seeing continuities between the public spheres of the past and the present is to foreground the element of shared standards of anticipation that make public spheres— and in some cases, democracy—work. This chapter suggests some points of departure for understanding a variety of historical trajectories and cultural and religious traditions that can shape public spheres.