By Jeremy Black

During this radical reassessment, Jeremy Black demanding situations the various tested assumptions in regards to the so-called army Revolution of 1560- 1660. He argues that it really is faraway from transparent army revolution did take place in this interval. certainly there's extra proof to signify that the outline can be utilized extra properly to the next hundred years. This publication additionally re-examines the connection among army energy and household balance. instead of seeing the latter because the final result of the previous, Dr Black argues that it makes extra feel to determine the previous as a result latter.

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Troops often responded by exactions from the civilian population, such as those of the Spanish in the neutral Papal States in 1736 [144]. Accounts of campaigns throw considerable doubt upon the customary picture of post-1648 warfare as having scant effect on civilians. Brutality and destruction were not confined to eastern Europe where religious and ethnic differences appear to have increased human cruelty. In western Europe destruction could be used as a tool of policy, to intimidate or to deny shelter and supplies to opponents, as with the French devastation of the Palatinate and neighbouring parts of Germany in the winter of 1688--9.

The new guns were lighter, not requiring a rest, and easier to fire, while the rate of fire, helped by the spread of paper cartridges, almost doubled. The flintlock was the standard weapon in the Dutch, English and French armies by 1700, the Austrians adopted it between the 1680s and the 1700s and the Swedes introduced it in 1696. The flintlock was made more effective by the replacement in this period of the early plug bayonets, which hindered firing, by ring and socket bayonets, which allowed firing with the blade in place.

In the princebishopric of Liege, Louis XIV's forces burnt Malmedy and Stavelot and pillaged Huy in 1689, and in 1691 caused a lot of damage in their unsuccessful siege of Liege by the use of heated shot among wooden buildings. When regular forces fought irregulars the fighting was often savage and atrocities were frequent. Examples include the Protestant rising in the Cevennes mountains of southern France in 1702-11 [142], the Tyrolean peasant resistance to a Bavarian invasion in 1703, the subsequent Bavarian peasant rising against Austrian occupiers, the suppression of the Jacobite Highlanders in Scotland in 1746, and the Genoese popular rising that drove out Austrian occupiers in 1746.

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