By Michio Ishikawa

Written by means of knowledgeable within the box, this publication is ideal when you want to recognize what occurred on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear energy Plant. half 1 of the booklet reviews how middle melts happened in Fukushima Daiichi devices 1, 2, and three, respectively, in accordance with facts from the Three-Mile Island middle soften coincidence and gas habit experiments played within the Seventies below the cooperation among the USA, Germany, and Japan. this knowledge explains the twist of fate methods with out contradicting facts from Fukushima, which used to be released within the TEPCO file. The hydrogen explosions in devices 1, three, and four also are defined logically along side the above center soften method. half 2 clarifies how the heritage radiation point of the positioning doubled: the 1st upward thrust used to be only a leak from small openings in devices 1 and three linked to fire-pump connection paintings. the second one upward push ended in direct radioactive fabric unencumber from unit 2. Evacuation dose adequacy and its timing are mentioned just about the twist of fate strategy, and the need for embankments surrounding nuclear strength vegetation to extend security opposed to average failures can be mentioned. New proposals for safeguard layout and emergency preparedness are instructed in keeping with classes realized from the coincidence in addition to from new stories. ultimately, an idea for decommissioning the Fukushima web site and a restoration plan are introduced.

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Additional info for A Study of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident Process: What caused the core melt and hydrogen explosion?

Sample text

The reason that a large amount of radioactivity did not spill out even when the cladding tube became brittle and finally broke was also because this dense oxide film tightly adhered to the pellet. The thin black film left on the surfaces of the disintegrated pellets found after the test are the remnants of this (Fig. 4). This is a very important finding for clarifying the core melt of TMI. The broken down fuel pellets did not melt together, nor did they turn into agglomerates. They were overlaid on each other as if they were parts of a collapsed woodblock work, but there were spaces between them for the coolant to flow through.

Safety review criteria are based on the results of the analyses of the Design Basis Accident (DBA).  This is a common rule worldwide. This particular setting is based on the finding of the oxidation reaction of cladding tubes that I mentioned above. The value of 1,200 °C was 18 1 Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station Accident arrived at by subtracting a safety margin of 100 °C from 1,300 °C, and the purpose is to prevent a core melt that might be caused by the unstoppable oxidation reactions of cladding tubes.

The collapsed fuel’s debris will be generally cooled by the water running around them so they will maintain their shapes. This performance is considered a characteristic of the LWR fuel, wherein zirconium is used as the cladding tube material.  If a sufficient amount of coolant is supplied, the fuel rods that are in a red-hot status react with water and cause a core melt. The time period for this process is relatively short. The reaction time that caused the TMI core melt was only 2 min or so. It is because the reaction between high temperature zirconium and water is extremely active and generates a great amount of heat.

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