By Giamila Fantuzzi
This ebook offers a accomplished survey of adipose tissue, its physiological features, and its function in illness. the quantity spans the whole variety of adipose tissue reviews, from easy anatomical and physiological study to epidemiology and medical experiences. Groundbreaking contemporary experiences are integrated into conventional versions of adipose tissue houses. an outline of the function of macrophages in weight problems and metabolism in incorporated.
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Extra info for Adipose Tissue and Adipokines in Health and Disease (Nutrition & Health)
This release of glycerol depends in part on adipose tissue aquaporin (AQPap), a channel-forming integral protein of the cell membrane. AQPap is a member of a family of at least 11 proteins that function as water channels (68). Its expression is increased during fasting and reduced by refeeding and insulin (69), whereas thiazolidinediones stimulate it (70). Deletion of AQPap in mice induces a lack of plasma glycerol increase in response to G-adrenergic stimulation and during fasting, with hypoglycemia during fasting (71), and results in obesity (72).
It binds apoprotein Erich lipoproteins, such as VLDL, chylomicrons, and remnants, and brings them probably in close contact with LPL, facilitating its action. Mice deficient in VLDL receptor have a decreased fat mass and are resistant to diet-induced obesity; moreover, VLDLreceptor deficiency reduces the obesity of ob/ob mice (6). The exact role of this receptor in humans remains to be defined. Whatever their origin, the uptake of long-chain fatty acids by adipocytes requires specific processes in order to allow them to cross the plasma membranes (7,8).
The expression and activity of LPL is increased in adipose tissue in the fed state, particularly during a high-carbohydrate diet, probably through the action of insulin, whereas both expression and activity are decreased in adipose tissue during fasting and high-fat diet (4). This uptake of TAGfatty acids is probably controlled also in part through the VLDL receptor, a member of the LDL-receptor family that is expressed in adipose tissue (5). It binds apoprotein Erich lipoproteins, such as VLDL, chylomicrons, and remnants, and brings them probably in close contact with LPL, facilitating its action.