By Mendel Cooper

This can be the total reference at the Borne back shell (bash). quantity 1Volume 2 includes all appendices.

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See also Example 16-15. In combination with the >> redirection operator, has no effect on a pre-existing target file (: >> target_file). If the file did not previously exist, creates it. This applies to regular files, not pipes, symlinks, and certain special files. May be used to begin a comment line, although this is not recommended. Using # for a comment turns off error checking for the remainder of that line, so almost anything may appear in a comment. However, this is not the case with :. 1 : This is a comment that generates an error, ( if [ $x -eq 3] ).

Bozo is bozo's home directory, and ls ~bozo lists the contents of it. ~/ is the current user's home directory, and ls ~/ lists the contents of it. bash$ echo ~bozo /home/bozo bash$ echo ~ /home/bozo bash$ echo ~/ /home/bozo/ bash$ echo ~: /home/bozo: bash$ echo ~nonexistent-user ~nonexistent-user ~+ current working directory. This corresponds to the $PWD internal variable. ~previous working directory. This corresponds to the $OLDPWD internal variable. =~ regular expression match. This operator was introduced with version 3 of Bash.

5) ( ... ) a subshell 6) cd /dest/directory Change to the destination directory. 7) && "And-list", as above 8) tar xpvf Unarchive ('x'), preserve ownership and file permissions ('p'), and send verbose messages to stdout ('v'), reading data from stdin ('f' followed by '-'). Note that 'x' is a command, and 'p', 'v', 'f' are options. 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 1 2 3 4 5 # # Whew! # More elegant than, but equivalent to: # cd source/directory # tar cf - . ]* /dest/directory # If there are hidden files in /source/directory.

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