By Suryadevara Babu
Advances in Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) provides the newest info on a mainstream strategy that's serious for high-volume, high-yield semiconductor production, or even extra in order machine dimensions proceed to cut down. The know-how has grown to surround the removing and planarization of a number of steel and dielectric fabrics and layers either on the equipment and the metallization degrees, utilizing varied instruments and parameters, requiring advancements within the keep watch over of topography and defects.
This vital booklet bargains a scientific assessment of basics and advances within the quarter. half One covers CMP of dielectric and steel movies, with chapters targeting using specific thoughts and procedures, and on CMP of specific numerous fabrics, together with extremely low-k fabrics and high-mobility channel fabrics, and finishing with a bankruptcy reviewing the environmental affects of CMP tactics.
Part addresses consumables and method keep watch over for better CMP, and contains chapters at the training and characterization of slurry, diamond disc pad conditioning, using FTIR spectroscopy for characterization of floor methods, and methods for defection characterization, mitigation, and reduction.
- Considers concepts and procedures for CMP of dielectric and steel films
- Includes chapters dedicated to CMP for specific materials
- Addresses consumables and strategy keep watch over for more desirable CMP
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Reprinted with permission from Ref. 38. 8. Many of the modern slurries are formulated to be compatible with TaN/Co liners and severe corrosion of Co due to electrochemical interactions in the presence of the slurry chemistry observed in conventional slurries is no longer present. 9. 10. 4 in Ref. 10 Electromigration lifetime dependence on divot formation. (a) Has signiﬁcant divot formation, (b) has moderate divots, and (c) has none. © (2013) IEEE. Reprinted with permission from Ref. 38. chemistries used for planarization and post-CMP cleaning.
24). After ILD CMP, the planarized ILD oxide is etched out to create the metal contact hole. Once the contact hole is made, this hole is ﬁlled by the metal liner and the contact metal, which is planarized by the subsequent metal CMP. CVD tungsten is typically used as the contact metal. Oxide CMP is typically a two-step process. At the ﬁrst polishing step, the majority of the bulk oxide is polished away. Typically, silica slurry and hard pad are used to maximize oxide removal rate and planarization efﬁciency.
It is conceivable that at gate lengths around 7e5 nm, Advances in Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP). 00002-4 Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 12 Even if such dire predictions are proved to be wrong and scaling could continue beyond 10 nm, it is anticipated that a slowdown might occur and a 3-year technology cycle may become a reality. While device scaling is an essential component of performance enhancement, interconnects have also become limiters and are now as important as devices in determining density and performance.