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Additional resources for Aid and Power in the Arab World: World Bank and IMF Policy-Based Lending in the Middle East and North Africa

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Egypt Egypt received its first IMF loan in 1976 followed by a new phase of loans that commenced in 1987. The first 1976 loan does seem to coincide with a period of increased inflation and deterioration in the current account, although debt service, gross capital formation and GDP growth were not problematic. However, given that inflation and the current account are often regarded as critical indicators by the IMF it would seem that the 1976 loan reflects a degree of recipient need. The picture, however, is very different for the 1987 loan.

President Benjedid’s political liberalisation backfired producing unexpected support for the Islamic opposition. The Bank and the Fund responded in June 1991 by offering the embattled regime a SDR 300 million Standby and a US$ 350 million Structural Adjustment Loan (the largest ever Bank programme loan to any country in the MENA region). The army, shaken by the Islamists’ overwhelming victory in local elections, stepped in on January 1992, deposed Bendjedid and cancelled the elections. A retired army general, Liamine Zeroul, was appointed by the army as head of the state in January 1994, and confirmed President after the 1995 elections.

Over the last twenty years, large commitments in some years were followed by little or no borrowing. Of total funds committed, large amounts were later cancelled, and the cost of dropped projects has been more than twice the Bank average. 6) Successful stabilisation The nature of the programme In 1991 Egypt signed a Standby loan with the IMF worth SDR 234 million and a Structural Adjustment Loan with the World Bank worth US$300 million. The economic reform conditions which accompanied these loans constituted the ERSAP programme which was initially intended to span a five year period.

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