By Vijay Prashad

The Arab Spring captivated the planet. Mass motion overthrew Tunisia’s Ben Ali and Egypt’s Hosni Mubarak. The innovative wave unfold to the some distance corners of the Arab global, from Morocco to Bahrain. It appeared as though all of the authoritarian states may eventually be freed, even these of the Arabian Peninsula. People’s energy had produced this wave, and persisted to trip it out.

In Libya, although, the hot global order had diversified rules. Social forces against Muammar Qaddafi had started to insurgent, yet they have been vulnerable. In got here the French and the us, with offers of glory. A deal with the Saudis, who then despatched of their personal forces to chop down the Bahraini revolution, and NATO started its attack, ushering in a Libyan iciness that forged its shadow over the Arab Spring.

This short, well timed research situates the attack on Libya within the context of the winds of rebel that swept in the course of the heart East within the Spring of 2011. Vijay Prashad explores the hot background of the Qaddafi regime, the social forces who antagonistic him, and the position of the United countries, NATO, and the remainder of the world's superpowers within the bloody civil battle that ensued.

Vijay Prashad is the George and Martha Kellner Chair of South Asian historical past, and professor and director of overseas reports at Trinity collage in Hartford, Connecticut. he's the writer or editor of over a dozen books, together with Karma of Brown Folk and, such a lot lately, The Darker countries: A People’s background of the 3rd World.

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Seven years later ‘Abd al-Rahman crossed the Straits of Gibraltar to Spain, the furthest outpost of the Islamic empire, and after many years of internal fighting established an independent Umayyad principality which for 26 The Great Caliphs the next 200 years neither recognized not rejected the hegemony of the ‘Abbasids in the Middle East but remained culturally connected to their empire in myriad ways. Once they had disposed of Marwan II and his Umayyad relatives, the ‘Abbasids pushed west from Egypt into Ifriqiya, modern Tunisia, and in 76 recaptured the important garrison town of Qayrawan which was in the hands of Kharijites.

He took the title of amir al-umara’, which may be loosely translated as ‘commander-in-chief ’, previously held by the paramount Turkish commander in the city, and set himself up as ‘protector’ of the ‘Abbasid caliphate. What was anomalous about this situation was that the Buyids had strong Shi‘i leanings, which by this time entailed the belief that the ‘Abbasids were not the true leaders of the Muslim community, as this was a position reserved for the last imam, currently in occultation.

However, when al-Mahdi nominated his sons Musa al-Hadi and Harun al-Rashid as successive heirs it led to a barely masked struggle for power which culminated in Musa’s suspicious death in 786 after just over a year as caliph, possibly at the instigation 30 The Great Caliphs of his own mother, Khayzuran, who seems to have preferred his brother Harun. Although Musa may well have died of natural causes, al-Tabari also reports the gossip that the strong-willed Khayzuran had ‘assumed sole control over matters of ordaining and forbidding’ 25 during al-Mahdi’s reign and expected to have the same influence over her son, who became increasingly frustrated by the tendency of the army chiefs to go to his mother rather than to him and by her overbearing attitude in his presence.

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