By Dr. H. R. Verma (auth.)

This ebook is a mix of analytical equipment in line with the phenomenon of atomic and nuclear physics. It includes accomplished shows approximately X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Neutron- Activation research (NAA), Particle brought on X-ray Emission research (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering research (RBS), Elastic draw back Detection (ERD), Nuclear response research (NRA), Particle triggered Gamma-ray Emission research (PIGE), and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). those options are mostly utilized within the fields of drugs, biology, environmental reports, archaeology or geology et al. and pursued in significant overseas study laboratories.

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Extra info for Atomic and Nuclear Analytical Methods: XRF, Mössbauer, XPS, NAA and B63Ion-Beam Spectroscopic Techniques

Example text

The central part of the tube is the high-voltage terminal. 4 Instrumentation/Experimentation 35 insulated by nylon studs. The charge is induced onto the chain by induction electrodes at the base of the tank. This charge is then deposited on the terminal, thereby raising its potential. The high potential terminal is supported by insulating columns consisting of two insulating plates. Hoops are used along the insulating plates to maintain equipotential planes. The ions passing through the terminal are made to pass through the stripper (gas or a thin carbon foil) which changes the negative ions into positive ions.

Due to appearance of the new set of lines (satellite and hyper-satellite), the principle X-ray lines get broadened and shifted to the higher energy side when observed by a Si(Li) detector. However, the complexity of the spectrum is very much visible when observed through a crystal spectrometer (energy resolution ≈ 1–2 eV). The Kα satellite lines will be represented as Kα(2p)5 , Kα(2p)4 , Kα(2p)3 , . . meaning that 5, 4, 3, . . electrons remain intact in the 2p shell while Kα(2p)6 will represent the Kα principle line with all the six 2p electrons intact.

Thus the precise values for X-ray cross-sections for various projectiles, based on any theoretical approach, are not available. A few important formulae relating to heavy-ion induced PIXE are given later: 1. 16) where Z1 is the incident particle charge, Z2 the effective target nuclear charge, a0 is the Bohr radius, ηn depends on the incident energy, and fn is a quantity related to the electronic wave function. 2. Charged particle Bremsstrahlung is proportional to (Z1 /M1 )2 , is small for heavy projectiles.

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